It should encompass the topic and state your point of view on that topic. Depending on the essay, your thesis statement can be either the opening sentence of the essay itself or the last sentence of the first paragraph. Meta-narrative, as outlined above, focuses on conflicting findings and constructs theories to explain these in terms of differing paradigms. Meta study derives questions from each of its three components to which it subjects the dataset and inductively generates a number of theoretical claims in relation to it. According to Eaves’ model of grounded theory , mini-theories are integrated to produce an explanatory framework.

research paper synthesis

Other helpful reviews of synthesis methods have been undertaken in recent years with slightly different foci to this paper. Two recent studies have focused on describing and critiquing methods for the integration of qualitative research with quantitative rather than exclusively examining the detail and rationale of methods for the synthesis of qualitative research. Two other significant pieces of work give practical advice for conducting the synthesis of qualitative research, but do not discuss the full range of methods available . We begin our Discussion by outlining each what is a bridge in an introduction paragraph method of synthesis in turn, before comparing and contrasting characteristics of these different methods across a range of dimensions. Readers who are more familiar with the synthesis methods described here may prefer to turn straight to the ‘dimensions of difference’ analysis in the second part of the Discussion. Synthesis is sometimes defined as a process resulting in a product, a ‘whole’, which is more than the sum of its parts. However, the methods reviewed here vary in the extent to which they attempt to ‘go beyond’ the primary studies and transform the data.

Overview of synthesis methods

Methods broadly fall into ‘realist’ or ‘idealist’ epistemologies, which partly accounts for these differences. Evidence synthesis informs judgements made in decision making; it does not mechanically determine decision making. Decisions may be based on research evidence combined with many other factors such as values, tacit knowledge, available resources and local conditions and contexts.

Some methods – textual narrative synthesis, ecological triangulation and framework synthesis – focus on describing and summarising their primary data and translating the studies into one another. Others – meta-ethnography, grounded theory, thematic synthesis, meta-study, meta-narrative and critical interpretive synthesis – seek to push beyond the original data to a fresh interpretation of the phenomena under review. A key feature of thematic synthesis is its clear differentiation between these two stages. Greenhalgh et al’s meta-narrative review modified a range of existing quality assessment tools to evaluate bridge sentence studies according to validity and robustness of methods; sample size and power; and validity of conclusions. The authors imply, but are not explicit, that this process formed the basis for the exclusion of some studies. In grounded theory, quality assessment is only discussed in terms of a ‘personal note’ being made on the context, quality and usefulness of each study. However, contrary to expectation, meta-narrative synthesis lies at the extreme end of the idealism/realism spectrum – as a subjective idealist approach – while meta-ethnography and grounded theory are classified as objective idealist approaches.

Use an Idea Matrix to Synthesize Ideas

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research paper synthesis

Your organization will be determined by the assignment or by the patterns you see in the material you are synthesizing. The organization is the most important part of a synthesis, so try out more than one format. Contains a one-sentence statement that sums up the focus of your synthesis. Demonstrates sufficient understanding of the ideas developed in the sources.

A visualization of synthesis

While methods for qualitative synthesis have many similarities, there are clear differences in approach between them, many of which can be explained by taking account of a given method’s epistemology. Jim Banning is the author of ‘ecological triangulation’ or ‘ecological sentence synthesis’, applying this method to the evidence for what works for youth with disabilities. He borrows from Webb et al and Denzin the concept of triangulation, in which phenomena are studied from a variety of vantage points. Dixon-Woods et al rejected reciprocal translational analysis as this produced ‘only a summary in terms that have already been used in the literature’ [, p5], which was seen as less helpful when dealing with a large and diverse body of literature. In their seminal work of 1988, Noblit and Hare proposed meta-ethnography as an alternative to meta-analysis . They also borrowed from Turner’s theory of social explanation , a key tenet of which was building ‘comparative understanding’ [, p22] rather than aggregating data. A number of methodological and conceptual links between these methods were identified and explored, while contrasting epistemological positions explained differences in approaches to issues such as quality assessment and extent of iteration.

Some methods directly build on others – framework synthesis builds on framework analysis, for example, while grounded theory and constant comparative analysis build on grounded theory. Others further develop existing methods – meta-study, critical interpretive synthesis and meta-narrative all adapt aspects of meta-ethnography, while also importing concepts from other theorists . Methods used to synthesise grounded theory studies in order to produce a higher level of grounded theory appear to be informed by ‘objective idealism’, as does meta-ethnography. Kearney argues for the near-universal applicability of a ‘ready-to-wear’ theory across contexts and populations. This approach is clearly distinct from one which recognises multiple realities. The emphasis is on examining commonalities amongst, rather than discrepancies between, accounts.

Engaging in Synthesis

Synthesis is the putting together of parts or elements so as to make up a complex whole; the combination of immaterial or abstract things, or of elements into an ideal or abstract whole…Also, the state of being put so together. Write the title, author, or citation of each source in the top row of the matrix. However, within the two broad idealist/realist categories, any differences between methods in terms of outputs appear to be small.

  1. Lines-of-argument synthesis involves building up a picture of the whole (i.e. culture, organisation etc) from studies of its parts.
  2. Within these systems, research issues of interest or importance may vary, between, for example, policy makers, practitioners, users of services and other individuals and groups within and between nations .
  3. Preclinical and toxicological studies (Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Experimentation , Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies ).
  4. The organization is the most important part of a synthesis, so choose the most effective format for your topic.

In both cases, you must use your sources to address and prove your thesis. While I agree they are different types of essays, they both help one develop their skill of synthesizing a passage. When we take the AP exam, it will not matter how many synthesis essays you have wrote in class, your score will come from how well you use your skill of synthesizing a passage, That is why a research paper is helpful, it develops skill. Research papers are worked on for weeks, and multiple drafts are completed. The way they are graded is different because the expectations differ. A multiple week paper is going to be more polished than a forty-minute paper. In forty minutes, you want to have a thesis and some main details that are backed up by sources.

Evidence Synthesis International ESI: Position Statement

As you analyze, you break the text down into its parts in order to evaluate the text. Analysis is like taking a puzzle apart and examining each piece, or analyzing a cake to find out what the ingredients are and how they work together. Taking a systems approach can also help in planning the production and use of research. how long is a essay paragraph Different stakeholder and decision makers can be consulted about their priorities for research evidence. Synthesis can clarify what is known and not known and how further primary research can inform such users’ needs. Synthesis is therefore key in informing the prioritization, methods and use of primary research.

If your opinion is not properly supported by the articles you have to try to make it work, which can be incredibly difficult. I like the point you made about how the sources you chose for your research paper fit your thesis. In the synthesis essay you must work within the sources given even if that is not the thesis you desired. When finding sources for a research paper you do not have to work with any specific sources, you are free to pick whatever you want.

Examining Your Topic

Personally, I simply transferred each concept to an individual sticky note and listed the authors who addressed it underneath. Writing a synthesis paper is just like creating any other form of thesis. According to the synthesis essay definition, it is a written discussion of ideas. They tend to draw on two or more sources from academic papers, fiction sources, speeches, interviews, articles, lectures, or observations. In writing a document that synthesizes ideas from multiple texts, it’s the impulse of many students to summarize or paraphrase a paragraph or a whole article, insert the summary, and then move on to the next text and summary. That’s not good practice, since it doesn’t link ideas in terms of their themes, and doesn’t focus on how those themes relate to your own ideas.

What is the best example of synthesis?

It's simply a matter of making connections or putting things together. We synthesize information naturally to help others see the connections between things. For example, when you report to a friend the things that several other friends have said about a song or movie, you are engaging in synthesis.

I also had to think of how I would use the sources within the paper. I had to write multiple drafts and a couple people edited my paper in class. My annotated bibliography was a main part in my planning, and it helped me decide which sources to use in the paper.

Position statement

WikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 12 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims different types of hooks for essays in published maps and institutional affiliations. Preclinical and toxicological studies (Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Experimentation , Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies ).

The organization has therefore worked to create a set of principles for its work and goals for how this would be achieved. These principles were originally drafted by the initial instigators of ESI and then refined and developed by the authors of this paper as Members of the ESI Steering Group, the Board of Directors and the Secretariat. Many factors may influence how a policy, practice or personal decision is made. The findings of a single or small subgroup of studies may not represent a full and accurate picture of what is known from all available research. Systematic review is a broad term to cover a range of research methods to provide rigorous and transparent reviews of research.